The list below includes 150 major verbs, with their English translations and notes about their use in the presente and passato prossimo (main past tense). To study these verbs as flashcards go here.

Regular verbs will follow the rules for their class (-are, -ere, -ire) and will not be conjugated. Each irregular verb below will have the conjugation in parentheses according to the standard order of subjects: io, tu, lui/lei/Lei, noi, voi, loro.

Example:  ESSERE:     (io) sono,    (tu) sei,   (lui/lei/Lei)  è,    (noi) siamo,     (voi) siete,     (loro) sono

Not included in the present-tense references are small spelling changes, such as verbs like mangiare which drop an –i in the –tu and –noi forms (mangi, mangiamo) or verbs like cercare, which insert an –h in the same forms (cerchi, cerchiamo).

For –ire verbs that insert –isc in their root before adding endings in the –io, –tu, lui/lei and loro forms, there will be an –isc in parentheses after the verb.

If a verb goes with ESSERE instead of AVERE in the passato prossimo, you will see the abbreviation ess. in parentheses after the present-tense reference.

If a verb has an irregular past participle in the passato prossimo, you will see it in parentheses.

Footnotes provide reminders regarding idiomatic uses of some verbs.

ABITARE (regular –are) – to live

ACCENDERE (regular –ere) (acceso) – to turn on

ADDORMENTARSI (regular reflexive –are) – to go to sleep

AIUTARE (regular –are) – to help

ALZARSI (regular reflexive –are) (ess.) – to get up

AMARE (regular –are) – to love

ANDARE (vado, vai, va, andiamo, andate, vanno) (ess.)– to go

ANNOIARSI (regular reflexive –are) (ess.) – to get bored

APRIRE (regular –ire) (aperto) – to open

ARRABBIARSI (regular reflexive –are) (ess.) –to get angry

ARRIVARE (regular –are) (ess.) – to arrive

ASCOLTARE (regular –are) – to listen

ASPETTARE (regular –are) – to wait (for)

AVERE (ho, hai, ha, abbiamo, avete, hanno) – to have

BALLARE (regular –are) – to dance

BERE (bevo, bevi, beve, beviamo, bevete, bevono) – to drink

CAMBIARE (regular –are) (ess.) [1]  – to change

CAMMINARE (regular –are)  – to walk

CANTARE (regular –are)  – to sing

CAPIRE (–isc) – to understand

CENARE (regular –are) – to have dinner

CERCARE (regular –are) – to look for

CHIAMARE (regular –are)  – to call

CHIEDERE (regular –ere) (chiesto) to ask

CHIUDERE (regular –ere) (chiuso) to close

COMINCIARE (regular –are) – to begin

COMPRARE (regular –are) –   to buy

CONOSCERE (regular –ere)  – to know [2]

CONSIGLIARE (regular –are)  – to advise, recommend

CONTATTARE (regular –are) – to contact

CONTINUARE (regular –are)  – to continue

CORRERE (regular –ere) (corso) – to run

COSTARE (regular –are) – to cost

COSTRUIRE (–isc) – to build, construct

CREARE (regular –are) – to create

CREDERE (regular –ere) – to believe

CUCINARE (regular –are)  – to cook

DARE (do, dai, dà, diamo, date, danno) – to give [3]

DECIDERE (regular –ere) (deciso)  – to decide

DESIDERARE (regular –are)  – to desire

DIMENTICARE (regular –are) – to forget

DIRE (dico, dici, dice, diciamo, dite, dicono) (detto)  –   to say, to tell

DIVENTARE (regular -are)   – to become

DIVERTIRSI (regular -ire)  – to have fun

DOMANDARE (regular –are) – to ask

DORMIRE (regular –ire) – to sleep

DOVERE (devo, devi, deve, dobbiamo, dovete, devono) – to have to, must

ENTRARE (regular –are) (ess.)  – to enter

EVITARE (regular –are) – to avoid

ESISTERE (regular –ere) (ess.) (esistito) – to exist

ESSERE (sono, sei, è, siamo, siete, sono) (ess.) (stato)  to be

FARE (faccio, fai, fa, facciamo, fate, fanno) – to make, to do [4]

FINIRE (-isc) – to finish, to end

FREQUENTARE (regular –are)  – to attend

GIOCARE (regular –are) – to play (a sport)

GUARDARE (regular –are) – to look at

GUIDARE (regular –are)  – to drive

IMMAGINARE (regular –are)  – to imagine

INCONTRARE (regular –are) – to meet

IMPARARE (regular –are) – to learn

INFORMARE (regular –are) – to inform

INSEGNARE (regular –are) – to teach

INTERESSARE (regular –are)  – to interest

LAMENTARSI (regular –are) (ess.)to complain

LASCIARE (regular –are)   – to let, to leave (trans.)

LAVARE (regular –are) – to wash

LAVORARE (regular –are) – to work

LEGGERE (regular –ere) (letto) to read

MANDARE (regular –are) – to send

MANGIARE (regular –are)  – to eat

METTERE (regular –ere) (messo)  to put

MORIRE (muoio, muori, muore, moriamo, morite, muoiono) (ess.) (morto) – to die

MOSTRARE (regular –are) –  to show

NASCERE (regular -ere) (ess.) (nato) – to be born

NEVICARE (regular -are) – to snow

NOLEGGIARE (regular –are) – to rent (a car)

NUOTARE (regular –are) – to swim

OFFRIRE (regular –ire) (offerto)   to offer

ORDINARE (regular –are) – to order

ORGANIZZARE (regular -are)  – to organize

PAGARE (regular –are) – to pay

PARTIRE (regular –ire) (ess.) – to leave, depart

PASSARE (regular –are)  – to spend (time)

PENSARE (regular –are) – to think (about)

PERDERE (regular –ere) (perso)   – to lose, to miss (a train, etc.)

PIACERE (mi piace, mi piacciono) [5]   – to like

PIANGERE (regular –ere) (pianto)to cry

PIOVERE (regular –ere)  – to rain

PORRE (pongo, poni, pone, poniamo, ponete, pongono) (posto)  – to put

PORTARE (regular –are)  – to bring, to wear

POTERE (posso, puoi, può, possiamo, potete, possono) – to be able to

PRANZARE (regular –are) – to have lunch

PRATICARE (regular –are) – to practice

PREFERIRE (-isc) [6]   – to prefer

PRENDERE (regular –ere) (preso) to take [7]

PREOCCUPARSI (regular –are) (ess.)    – to worry

PREPARARE (regular –are)  – to prepare

PROMETTERE (regular –ere) (promesso)  – to promise

PROVARE (regular –are)   –   to try

PULIRE (-isc) – to clean

RICEVERE (regular –ere) – to receive

RICORDARE (regular –are)  – to remember

RIDERE (regular –ere) (riso)to laugh

RIPETERE (regular –ere)–   to repeat

RICONOSCERE (regular –ere)  – to recognize

RICORDARE (regular –are) – to remember

RIMANERE (rimango, rimani, rimane, rimaniamo, rimanete, rimangono) (ess.) (rimasto)  – to remain

RISPONDERE (regular –ere) (risposto)  to respond

RISUCIRE (like USCIRE: riesco, riesci, etc.) (ess.) – to succeed, to manage

ROMPERE /ROMPERSI (regular –ere) (rotto)  to break

SBAGLIARSI (regular –are) (ess.)  to make a mistake

SAPERE (so, sai, sa, sappiamo, sapete, sanno) – to know

SCEGLIERE (scelgo, scegli, sceglie, scegliamo, scegliete, scelgono)  – to choose

SCRIVERE (regular –ere) (scritto)   to write

SCUSARE (regular –are) – to excuse

SEDERSI (mi siedo, ti siedi, si siede, ci sediamo, vi sedete, si siedono)  (ess.) – to sit down

SEGUIRE (regular –ire) – to follow

SEMBRARE (regular –are) – to seem

SENTIRE (regular –ire)   – to hear, to smell

SENTIRSI (regular reflexive -ire) – to feel

SERVIRE (regular –ire) – to serve

SMETTERE (regular –ere) (smesso)  to stop

SPEDIRE (-isc)  – to send

SPEGNERE (regular –ire) (spento) – to turn off

SPENDERE (regular –ere) (speso)  to spend (money)

SPERARE (regular –are)  – to hope

SPIEGARE (regular –are)  – to explain

SPOSARSI (regular –are) (ess.)  to get married

STARE (sto, stai, sta, stiamo, state, stanno) – to stay [8]

STUDIARE (regular –are) –to study

STUPIRE (-isc) – to amaze

SUGGERIRE (–isc) – to suggest

SUONARE (regular –are) – to play (an instrument)

SVEGLIARSI (regular –are) (ess.)  – to wake up

TELEFONARE (regular –are)  – to call

TENERE (tengo, tieni, tiene, teniamo, tenete, tengono) – to keep

TRADURRE (traduco, traduci, traduce, traduciamo, traducete, traducono) (tradotto)  – to translate

TRASFERIRSI (-isc) (ess.)to move

TROVARE (regular –are) – to find

USARE (regular –are) – to use

USCIRE (esco, esci, esce, usciamo, uscite, escono) (ess.) – to go out

VEDERE (regular –ere) (visto)  to see

VENDERE (regular –ere) – to sell

VENIRE (vengo, vieni, viene, veniamo, venite, vengono) (ess.)  – to come

VESTIRSI (regular –ire) (ess.)  – to get dressed

VIAGGIARE (regular –are)  – to travel

VIETARE (regular –are)  – to prohibit

VISITARE (regular –are)  – to visit [9]

VIVERE (regular –ere) (vissuto) to live

VOLARE (regular –are) – to fly

VOLERE (voglio, vuoi, vuole, vogliamo, volete, vogliono) –   to want

[1]  Cambiare goes w/ essere in the passato prossimo if the subject of the sentence is the one undergoing the change. (e.g. I changed = Sono cambiato. v. I changed my mind = Ho cambiato idea.)

[2] Conoscere refers to familiarity (or acquaintanceship) with people, places, or bodies of knowledge; sapere refers to factual knowledge.

[3] There are several idiomatic uses of dare (e.g. dare del tu, dare un esame, etc.)

[4] There are many idiomatic uses of fare: (fare attenzione, fare il bagno, fare colazione, etc.)

[5] The subject of piacere is the thing liked. Read about piacere and like verbs here.

[6] Do not confuse PREFERISCO (= I prefer) with PREFERITO (the adjective for favorite)

[7] Prendere is also used idiomatically with decisione: prendere una decisione = to make a decision.

[8] There are a number of idiomatic uses of stare: (stare zitto, stare attento, etc.)

[9] Use visitare for visiting a place; Use andare a trovare for visiting people.